Glossary

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Gamut offers a broad spectrum of smart media from programmatic to direct. We provide comprehensive media solutions that optimize ad revenue for publishers and create access to key audiences for advertisers. Gamut delivers digital campaigns that build on our long history of media excellence and benefit from the most advanced data-driven tools. Whether locally, regionally or nationally, Gamut connects publishers and buyers for optimum results.

Gamut believes that whether we are talking about programmatic or direct ad buying and selling, it doesn’t have to be that complicated. Simplifying the process starts with the way we talk about it. Gamut’s A to Z Smart Media Glossary will help you cut through all the buzzwords and acronyms, demystifying the jargon and empowering you to lead the conversation about your demand- or supply-side goals.

So, whether you’re selling or buying media, Gamut’s broad spectrum of smart media solutions work together to give you the edge you need to navigate the best path ahead, from A to Z.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Ad exchange – An advertising marketplace that enables the buying and selling of ad space through automated pricing and real-time bidding

Adjacency – Placement of a commercial immediately preceding or following a TV program

Ad network – A seller of ad inventory aggregated across multiple sources. For example, an online ad network may offer ad space across multiple sites as a run-of-network or targeted buy.

Ad server – The technology (computer and software) that places and tracks ad creative on a web site, managing and optimizing ad creative placement based on campaign criteria and available inventory.

Ad verification – Confirmation through a third-party vendor that an ad appeared only where the advertiser specified.

Affidavit – An official confirmation that a TV commercial ran at the time specified

Affiliate – A local TV station that has contractually agreed to broadcast network programs and advertising for part of its broadcast day

Agency Trading Desk (ATD) – Platform for programmatic buying affiliated with a particular agency

Aggregated Information – Data collected from different users but not identifying anyone individually

Airing Date – The specific day a program will be broadcast

Anonymous Information – Data, such as gender, that doesn’t uniquely identify a user

API – Application Programming Interface: Typically, code provided to software developers to allow access to data, content or services from an existing application, website or operating system

Arbitrage – Buying and selling at the same time in separate markets to profit from price differences

Aspect Ratio – The relation between the width and height of a video image such as 16:9 representing a widescreen image

ATSC – Advanced Television Systems Committee. The non-profit organization that determines voluntary digital television technical standards

Attribute – A piece of user information, such as demographic information, typically used for ad targeting

Attribution Modeling – The practice of analyzing how marketing activities lead to conversions in order to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of media and campaigns

Audience Fragmentation – Breaking up of a mass audience into smaller groups often resulting from increased media choices

Audience Intelligence – The process of identifying an advertiser’s audience by analyzing both first-party and third-party data

Audience Share – Percentage of total TVs tuned to a channel or program during a specific period of time

Avail – Commercial space available on a channel or network

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B

Behavioral data – Information about users activity on websites and interaction with advertising.

Behavioral Targeting – A method for delivering and tracking online advertising to reach targeted users whose browsing activity matches specified criteria

Billboard – Brief sponsorship recognition preceding or following a TV program or portion of a program

Blacklist – Websites that an advertiser specifies to not allow its advertising to appear on, typically because the site’s content does not align with the advertiser’s messaging

Brand Blocking – Gamut service that allows publishers to block ads by brand

Branded Keyword – A search query word or phrase that contains a specific brand name or form of a brand name to deliver traffic

Brand Safety – Technology that guards against advertisements running on website pages that might deliver messaging in a negative context

Break Position – Where an advertiser’s commercial is placed within a break

Brick and Mortar – A company that conducts business with customers through a traditional storefront or office

Broadband Cable – High-bandwidth cable often including other services such as cable telephone and Internet access

B-roll – Additional video used to supplement the main content

Bumper – A short message or advertisement such as animation or a logo treatment that serves as a transition between programming and advertising

Bug – A digital graphic such as a logo placed in the corner of a TV screen during a program

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C

Call to action – Copy in an advertisement that motivates a consumer to do something such as “click here for more information”

Catch-up TV – On-demand TV service that allows viewing of programs that have already been broadcast

Channel Coverage – Percentage of homes with TVs that are within a channel’s broadcast coverage area

Channel Penetration – Percentage of homes with TVs that are capable of receiving a specific TV channel and have a TV tuned to that channel at a particular time

Channel Share – A TV channel’s estimated share of audience

Checkerboarding – Method of scheduling different programs in the same time period every night, typically in prime time

Click-Through Rate (CTR) – A measurement of ad response determined by dividing the number of actual clicks on an ad by the amount of ad impressions

Closed Captioning – Text displayed on a video screen that transcribes the program’s audio content

Commercial TV – TV channels that rely on advertising to make a profit

Consolidated Audience – Total TV audience that includes both live and timeshift viewers

Content Targeting – A method of delivering ads to targeted users by matching an advertiser’s messaging with the most relevant web pages of editorial content

Contextual Ads – Ads that are automatically selected and served based on their relevance to the web page content the user is seeing

Contextual Data – Data about a website page’s content to provide context for advertisers

Conversion Activity – The end action an advertiser wants a consumer to take as a result of its advertising efforts such as requesting more product information or buying the product

Conversion Rate – A measurement of ad campaign effectiveness within a defined time period determined by dividing the number of consumers who did a specified conversion activity by the total amount of ad impressions

Cookie – Information shared between a user’s browser and a Web server that is stored on the user’s computer and utilized to potentially identify users and track their site navigation

Cookie Caching – Collecting cookies of various users typically to optimize a campaign through an ad exchange

Cookie, First-Party – A cookie that a publisher places on its own website

Cookie, Third-Party – A cookie placed on a website not by the website’s owner, typically an ad server or data provider for targeting purposes

Cost Per Click (CPC) – A form of ad pricing based on the value of every click on an ad unit

Cox Media Group – A leading integrated media company delivering creative targeted marketing solutions across television, radio, newspapers, digital, and direct mail, Cox Media Group connects advertisers with nearly 52 million Americans weekly in more than 20 media markets

CPM – A measurement of the cost per thousand ad impressions delivered that can be used to determine the cost efficiency of comparable websites

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D

Data Management Platform – Technology that brings together an advertiser’s first-party data with third-party data and other analytics to customize campaign strategy on a DSP platform

Daypart Targeting – A targeting method used to reach consumers who are online during a specific time of day

DB (Delayed Broadcast) – Program that airs in a specific market at a different time than when it was broadcast nationally

Demand Side Platform (DSP) – Technology that provides a central interface for Real Time Bidding, based on set criteria, on aggregated ad inventory from multiple ad networks, ad exchanges and other sources

Direct Response – A type of advertising campaign designed to deliver messaging to consumers directly and motivate them to take an action immediately

DMP – Data Management Platform: Technology that facilitates ad buying and selling by bringing together data on consumer behavior from multiple independent sources for better analysis and easier targeting

DOG – Digital On-Screen Graphic: Typically, a logo or BUG placed on screen during a TV program

Double Pumping – Broadcasting two episodes of a show one after another

Downstream – Interactive TV term for the signal from a provider to the user’s home

Dramatic Floor Optimization – Gamut’s proprietary value prediction system allows publishers to set a floor price for each impression to maximize winning bids from advertisers

Drip – Advertising providing low-intensity exposure continuously over a longer period of time

DRM – Digital Rights Management: Technology that allows copyright owners of digital content to control how the content is used

DRTV (Direct Response TV) – Advertising designed to motivate viewers to respond directly to the advertiser, such as an infomercial

DTH – Television programming broadcast via satellite directly to dish antennas at viewers’ homes

DVR (Digital Video Recorder) – A device that allows timeshift viewing of programs

Dynamic Ad Insertion – The capability of serving a targeted ad based on available data about the user

Dynamic Pricing – As opposed to a predetermined fixed rate, the real-time auction price of an impression

Dynamic CPM (dCPM) – Real time tactic for increasing a CPM bid on each impression only by the minimum required to win, instead of setting an exact CPM for all impressions

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E

eCPM – Effective Cost per Thousand: An ad campaign’s final average CPM, taking into account different CPMs for various ad units, determined by diving the total cost of the campaign by the total number of impressions served

Encryption – The process of encoding a video signal to allow viewing only by consumers who have paid to receive programming through a provided decoder

Engagement – A measurement of users’ interaction with an ad

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F

FCC – Federal Communications Commission: The organization that regulates broadcasting in the U.S.

First Look – Practice of allowing an advertiser first right of refusal for an impression based on pre-negotiated terms such as floor price

First-Party Data – A company’s information about its customers, such as names, addresses and phone numbers, collected directly from the customers themselves

First Run – The premier of a TV program

FPS – Frames per Second: A measurement of the number of times an on-screen image is refreshed during one second

Frequency Cap – A method to drive click through rates or reduce ad overexposure that limits the amount of times a single ad is served on a website over a specific period of time

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G

Gamut – 1. The complete range or scope 2. A smart media company from Cox that delivers a broad spectrum of smart media solutions from programmatic to direct—national, regional, and local cross-channel television and digital campaigns, built on a long history of media excellence and utilizing today’s most advanced data-driven tools

Geo-Targeting – A method of targeting that delivers advertising based on a user’s location determined by a zip code provided by the user, the user’s IP address, or specific location-based content accessed by the user during browsing

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H

Hammocking – A method to increase a program’s viewership by airing the program between two programs that are already performing strongly

HDTV – High-Definition Television: A high-resolution digital television broadcast format delivering at least 720 lines of resolution

HUT (Homes Using TV) – Measurement of homes tuned in to TV at a specific time

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I

Impression – A single unit of inventory on a website typically defined as the viewing of an ad or page by a user

In-Banner Video Ad – An ad unit that features a video that can be played directly within the banner

Independent Station – An independently-owned TV station typically in a local market that may or may not have a network affiliation

Independent Trading Desk (ITD) – A company that provides programmatic buying but is not affiliated with an agency or media group

Infomercial – A long-form commercial message, typically up to two minutes in length and providing more detailed information about a product or service

Interaction Rate – A measurement of how much a user interacts with a rich media ad unit, such as time spent engaging with content within the unit, determined by calculating the number of interactions in the context of impressions served

IP Address – Internet Protocol Address: A unique string of numbers used to identify a device connected to the Internet

iTV – Interactive Television: Television technology that allows users to engage with content such as viewing on-demand programming or purchasing products featured in advertising

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J

JavaScript – A widely used computer programming language used to control web browsers to provide users with additional functionality

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K

Key Performance Indicator (KPI) – Criteria to evaluate the success of an ad campaign typically based on consumer actions taken such as click-through

Keyword – Specific word entered into a search engine by the user that results in a return of a list of Web sites related to the keyword

Keyword Targeting – Aiming for content that contains specific keywords

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L

Landing Page – The initial page that a user is directed to upon clicking an ad, usually allowing the user to follow through on a specific call to action such as buying a product or receiving more product information

Lead Generation – The process of acquiring information on consumers who are most interested in a company’s product or service by typically asking them to submit personal contact information to receive a future correspondence from the company

Letterboxing – A method to display widescreen video featuring black bars at the top and bottom of the screen

Live – Programming broadcast as it is happening in real time

Live on Tape – A program recorded for broadcasting later as it occurred in real time

Long Tail Publisher – A smaller, niche publisher such as a blog

Look-Alikes/Audience Modeling – Type of targeting that uses an advertiser’s first-party data to identify potential customers from a larger pool

Lower Third – The bottom part of the television screen where additional content such as a news ticker or the title of a program can be displayed while a program is airing

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M

Makegoods – Additional ad impressions that are negotiated to make up for the shortfall of ads delivered compared to the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order

M-Commerce – The ability to conduct transactions via a mobile device, such as a WAP-enabled cell phone, also known as mobile commerce

Metadata – Data that includes descriptions of the characteristics of information, such as quality, origin, context, content, and structure of other data

Micro-Site, Mini-Site – A custom-created page or hub built by a website for an advertiser to enhance an advertiser’s presence on the site and provide the most relevant environment to deliver messaging

MSO – An acronym used in the media industry for any cable network operator with more than one cable TV system

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N

Network – A television broadcaster that simultaneously distributes programming to many stations.

Nielsen Ratings – A system developed by Nielsen to measure television audiences

Non-Remnant Inventory – Impressions sold to an advertiser directly by a publisher

NTSC – National Television System Committee: The organization that set the analog television broadcasting standards

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O

Open Rate – Method for measuring an email campaign’s success determined by calculating the number of opened emails as a percentage of all the emails sent.

Optimization – Changes made to an ad campaign, such as adjustments to placements or changes to tags, to maximize performance metrics such as click-rate

Organic Listing – Unpaid links that “naturally” appear in search engine results and help drive traffic to a website

Overnight Viewing Data – Information about a program’s viewership from the previous day

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P

Page Impression – A measurement of the number of times a website has been viewed by a user

PAL – Phase Alternating Line: The broadcast television technology used primarily in Europe and other parts of the world outside the U.S.

Pay Per Click (PPC) – A method of ad pricing that charges an advertiser based on every click on the advertiser’s ad.

Pay-Per-View – Programming offered to viewers for a one-time fee

Pillarbox – Formatting of 4:3 aspect video featuring black bars to the right and left of the picture to fit widescreen TVs

Pilot – A single episode of a speculative show presented to an audience to determine how well the show will be received as a series

Pixel/Tag/Beacon – An object such as a 1×1 pixel embedded into a page on a website to monitor a user’s online activity

Pre-emption – When a commercial has been replace by another commercial that garnered a higher rate

Pre-Roll Video – Brief video from an advertiser running just before streaming content plays

Primetime – TV viewing period typically between 7:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m.

Private Exchange – Programmatic platform that allows publishers to offer premium inventory to advertisers who agree to pre-negotiated terms such as floor price and flight dates

Product Placement – Form of advertising in which product is naturally integrated into a program

Program Syndication – Programs distributed to local TV stations for broadcasting

PSA – Public Service Announcement: An ad, usually running free of charge, created to raise awareness or change public opinion

Publisher Approval Process – Service provided by Gamut designed to decrease a publisher’s payment turnaround through an advanced approval process

PUT (People using TV) – Percentage of people using TV at a specified time

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Q

Q-Score – Measurement of the popularity of something or someone, typically an on-air or online personality, character or TV program

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R

Real Time Bidding (RTB) – Ad buying of aggregated inventory on an impression-by-impression basis in a real-time auction platform

RTB – Bidder – System that evaluates and buys impressions for advertisers in real time via pipes

RTB – Pipe (API) – Technology that connects to a source providing inventory and pushes impressions to buyers in real time as they become available

RTB Reports – Real-time sales performance data, such as impressions, eCPM and revenue, provided by Gamut to publishers

Remnant Inventory – A publisher’s unsold inventory, typically provided to a third-party seller to offer to advertisers at a reduced rate

Retargeting – A method of identifying and tracking users based on their behavior on a website that allows advertisers to deliver their advertising to a targeted user again when the user visits another site.

Return on Advertising Spend (ROAS) – Measurement of revenue generated for every advertising dollar spent on a campaign

Rich Media – Typically a type of ad unit that allows users to interact with content within the ad unit

Rundown – Timeline detailing a program’s precise content

Run of Site or Run of Network (ROS or RON) – A non-targeted ad campaign running across a site or ad network without designated placements in a section of a site or network of sites

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S

Search Engine Marketing (SEM) – The promotion of a website to drive traffic and increase visibility typically through obtaining higher placements in search engine results, pay-per-click listings and other advertising

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) – A method of achieving higher placements on search engine results pages by ensuring a website’s architecture is easily searchable by search engine spiders, often employing techniques such as adding keywords

Second Price Auction/Vickery Auction – Type of auction in which the highest bidder wins but pays the second highest bid plus one cent

Share Of Voice (SOV) – The percentage of impressions an advertiser buys on a website or section of a website for a designated period of time

Smart TV – A type of television that delivers an interactive experience for users through features such as web browsing, video on demand and access to streaming video services

SMS – Short Message Service: A text message under 160 characters, that can include graphics or other types of data, delivered to a cell phone often as a result of a user opting-in to an ad campaign; for example, a ringtone sent to a user as a free gift with purchase

Sponsorship – An opportunity for an advertiser to help fund programming and receive recognition for participation

Spot – A TV commercial

SSP – Supply-Side Platform/Sell-Side Platform: Technology that allows publishers to sell inventory through ad exchanges; the equivalent of a DSP on the publisher’s side

Streaming Media – Audio and video that improves a user’s experience by allowing the media to begin playing before a file is completely downloaded

Strip Programming – Method of scheduling different episodes of a program in the same time slot every day

Sub Floor Optimization – A proprietary price surplus platform from Gamut that leverages subfloor bids to maximize sell-through

Sweeps – Periods of time (usually February, May, July and November) when Nielsen ratings are measured for every show in every market across all demographics, providing broadcasters with an opportunity to try new shows or boost ratings for successful programs

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T

Tagging – Method of adding code to a website page or placing a pixel on a page to collect data about who is visiting the page, typically to deliver targeted messaging 

Teaser – Edited video running before a program’s title sequence that brings viewers up to speed on plot developments to be continued in the episode that follows.

Third-Party Ad Server – Outsourced technology that delivers advertising to a website and tracks performance independent of the publisher carrying the ad campaign, often to allow advertisers to obtain more detailed campaign reporting

Third-Party Data – Information purchased to target consumers provided by a source outside your company

Trading Desk – A central platform from which an ad trader connects to a DSP or ad exchange

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U

UGC – User-Generated Content: Content created by users online and accessible to other users, often produced with a common goal in mind or through collaboration

Unique Visitors – The measurement of distinct individuals or browsers navigating to a site during a given period of time

Universal Ad Package – The group of standard ad units, designated by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB), included in most ad campaigns—LeaderBoard (728X90), Wide Skyscraper (160×600) and Medium Rectangle (300×250)

Upfront – Term for meetings conducted during the primary network TV commercial buying period, that provide advertisers with an opportunity to get a glimpse of new television programming offered by networks and buy commercial airtime, typically several months before a season begins

Upstream – Interactive TV term for the signal from a user’s home to the service provider

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V

Video On Demand (VOD) – Technology that allows users to view content on their own time, whenever they choose, rather than watching during a program’s designated broadcast time

View Through – A measurement of campaign effectiveness that tracks users who see an ad but do not click through; instead, navigating directly to the website featured in the ad

VO – Voice Over: Off-screen narration provided by an announcer during a program or advertisement

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W

Watermarking – Displaying a company’s logo on screen, typically in a bottom corner, during a broadcast

Webinar – A presentation broadcast online that enables users to log on in real time and interact with the presenter

White Listing – Allowing a publisher to specify which brands/URLs can be served on its website or allowing an advertiser to specify which websites its ads can be placed on

Win Rate – A metric for measuring  a campaign’s performance calculated by dividing the number of impressions won by the number of impressions bid on

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X

XML – (eXtensible Markup Language) A markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable

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Y

Yield – The percentage of clicks vs. impressions on an ad within a specific page

Yield Management/Yield Optimization – Method of maximizing a publisher’s revenue by adjusting ad inventory pricing and managing volume of available inventory

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Z

Zoom – A type of video shot characterized by the camera going from a wide distance shot to a close-up

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